When photographing panoramas, particularly those incorporating a very wide field of view, it is important to choose exposure settings appropriate for all the individual shots. Changes of aperture alter depth of field and should be avoided. An ISO setting and shutter speed appropriate for all the individual shots should therefore be chosen. The fixed exposure regime provides images that will blend well, and more or less eliminate the problem of colour changes between shots.
Where a large variation in exposure is present in a panoramic scene, high dynamic range (HDR) techniques can be employed. Basically, each image in a panorama is taken at several different exposures ( normally by varying the shutter speed), and special software is used to combine the images.